This site brings you the most useful resources on the use of other formative research methods. Let us know if you think that an important resource is missing. 

Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs): Giving Participants a Voice in Program Design

2005, Manoff Group
This document provides brief and practical guidance on the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs), a formative research technique suitable for testing behaviours that are used by very few (if any) people. The procedure consists of a series of visits in which the interviewer and the participant analyze current practices, discuss what could be improved, and together reach an agreement on one...

Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs)

2011, FAO
This training manual helps you to train other people on using the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs), a formative research method used when introducing new or uncommon behaviours. The publication is especially useful if you intend to use TIPs for food security or nutrition-related interventions.

Trials of Improved Practices Manual An Introduction to Reality Testing for Sustainable Waste Behaviors

2023, The Manoff Group
This manual is intended to introduce Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to organisations, including the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Clean Cities, Blue Ocean (CCBO) program’s grantee organizations and local governments working in the reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) and solid waste management (SWM) sectors. The manual provides an overview of TIPs, its uses and benefits, and...

Social and Behavior Change for Solid Waste Management

2022, Social and Behavior Change for Solid Waste Management
Since 2019, USAID’s Clean Cities, Blue Ocean program has designed and implemented activities across Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean to change how SBC is promoted within the solid waste sector. To achieve behavior and social change yielding reduced plastics leakage, the program utilizes more participatory and newer, evidence-based approaches. This webinar provides an...

Customer Journey Mapping: Guide for Practitioners

Oxford Strategic Marketing
This publication provides guidance on the use of customer journey mapping - a formative research technique helping us understand people's experience with using (or trying to use) certain service, taking into account not only what happens to them, but also their responses to their experiences. Although the guide is based on examples from wealthier countries, its guidance can be...

Wash'Em: Barriers & Enablers to Handwashing

2019, ACF, LSHTM
Wash'Em is a process for rapidly designing evidence-based and context-adapted handwashing behaviour change interventions, especially in the emergency contexts. The Wash’Em process involves using 5 rapid assessment tools to understand behaviour, using observations, interviews, videos and other methods. 

Formative Research Guide

2014, CARE
This guide provides development practitioners with a range of tools they need to conduct qualitative research. It helps them to assess the factors that influence people's abilities and willingness to adopt and practice positive behaviours. While the guide's main focus is on infant and young child feeding, the provided tools are very useful also for research in other sectors,...

Tools Together Now!

2006, The International HIV/AIDS Alliance
This toolkit provides a selection of 100 participatory learning and action (PLA) tools which you can use for understanding people's behaviours. While the toolkit's main focus is on HIV/AIDS programmes, many of the tools can be easily used also in other contexts.